In a joint replacement, the abnormal bone and lining structures of the joint are removed surgically, and new parts are inserted in their places. These new parts may be made of special metal or plastic or specific kinds of carbon-coated implants. The new parts allow the joints to move again with little or no pain. [Hip & Knee join are most of the required Joints for Replacement]
Artificial joints in the Knee and HIP may help:
Reduce joint pain
Restore or maintain joint motion
Improve the look and alignment of the joint(s)
Improve overall Knee and HIP function.
In a normal joint, bones have a smooth surface made of a substance called articular cartilage on their ends that allows one bone to glide easily against another. Joints are lubricated by a thin layer of fluid (synovial fluid) that acts like oil in an engine to keep parts gliding smoothly. When the articular cartilage wears out, is damaged, or the joint fluid is abnormal, problems develop, and joints often become stiff and painful. This is arthritis, which may be possible to treat with this procedure.
Therapy supervised by a trained hand therapist is almost always required after any joint replace-ment surgery, usually for several months. Special splints are generally used depending on which joint was replaced and how the surgery was done (Figure 2).
To ensure the best results after surgery, follow your surgeon and therapists’ directions, call your surgeon if you experience a sudden increase in pain or swelling, and call your surgeon if your hand or wrist becomes red, hot or crooked.
Call your surgeon or therapist if you have specific questions about your new joint(s).
Some risks of this procedure include:
- Implant loosening, fracturing or wearing down over time, which may require subsequent surgery
- Joint stiffness or pain if the procedure or implant fails
- Dislocation of the artificial joint
- Damage to vessels, nerves or other structures in the region of the surgery
Some alternate procedures for treating arthritis include:
- Joint injections
- Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines
- Hand therapy exercises and protective splints
- Arthrodesis surgery to fuse bones together, which relieves pain by eliminating motion be-tween damaged joint surfaces
- Resection arthroplasty, which is a surgery to remove arthritic surfaces and/or bone
- Surgery on tendons or ligaments to repair related joint injuries
Knee replacement is required when knee become painful and stiff due to degeneration of articular cartilage and altered biomechanics of the knee. One such condition is Osteoarthritis in which joint space is narrowed and obliterated; and knee has a deformity with crackling sound on movements. By this procedure damaged articular surface is replaced with artificial joint along with correction of the deformity. Unicondylar knee replacement is performed in the patients with early osteoarthritis where only one compartment of the knee is involved & there is no fixed deformity of the knee. Only damaged condyle is replaced. Revision knee replacement is performed when the previous knee replacement is causing trouble due to implant loosening, plastic wear, and infection or due to any other reason. Previous artificial knee is replaced with new one with extra features.
Elbow replacement is surgery to replace the elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics).
The elbow joint connects two bones:
-The humerus in the upper arm
-The ulna in the lower arm
The artificial elbow joint has two stems made of high-quality metal. A metal and plastic hinge joins the stems together and allows the artificial joint to bend. Artificial joints come in different sizes to fit different size people.
You will receive general anesthesia before surgery. This means you will be asleep and pain-free during surgery. Some patient may also receive regional anesthesia. You will also be given medicine to help you relax.
Your surgeon will make an cut on the back of your arm to show your elbow joint. The damaged tissue and parts of the arm bones that make up the elbow joint are removed.
A drill is used to make a hole in the center of the two arm bones. The end of the artificial elbow joint are placed into each bone. They are connected with a hinge. The tissue around the elbow is repaired.
The wound is closed with stitches, and a bandaged is applied. Your arm may be placed in a splint to keep it stable.
Shoulder replacement is surgery to replace the bones of the shoulder joint with artificial joint parts.
You will receive anesthesia before this surgery. Two types of anesthesia can be used:
General anesthesia, which means you will be unconscious and unable to feel pain.
Regional anesthesia to numb your arm and shoulder area so that you do not feel any pain in this area. If you receive regional anesthesia, you will also be given medicine to help you relax during the operation.
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint. The round end of the arm bone fits into the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows you to move your arm in most directions.
For total shoulder replacement, the round end of your arm bone will be replaced with an artificial stem that has a rounded metal head. The socket part (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell (lining) that will be held in place with a special cement. If only 1 of these 2 bones needs to be replaced, the surgery is called a partial shoulder replacement, or a hemiarthroplasty.
HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY
Hip replacement, is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant. Replacing the hip joint consists of replacement each the acetabulum and the femoral head. Such joint replacement orthopaedic surgery generally is conducted to relieve arthritis pain or fix severe physical joint injury as a part of hip fracture treatment.
Hip replacement surgery is for people with severe hip injury. Once you have a hip replacement, the hip surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. This could relieve pain, reduce hip stiffness and help your hip joint work well, and improve your walking and alternative movements. Your doctor might suggest it if you have got hip issues and pain, and physical therapy, medicines and exercise do not facilitate. The most common problem after surgery is hip dislocation. Because a man-made hip is smaller than the original joint, the ball can come out of its socket. The surgery can also cause blood clots and infections. After a hip replacement, you might need to avoid certain activities, such as jogging and high-impact sports.