A hernia is the exit of an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides. Hernias come in a number of different types. Most commonly they involve the abdomen, specifically the groin.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
By far the most common hernias develop in the abdomen, when weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or “defect”, through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia involves the spinal discs and causes sciatica. A hiatus hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm. Hernias may or may not present with either pain at the site, a visible or palpable lump, or in some cases more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become “stuck” in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction. Fatty tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed or accompanied by an organ. Hernias are caused by a disruption or opening in the fascia, or fibrous tissue, which forms the abdominal wall. It is possible for the bulge associated with a hernia to come and go, but the defect in the tissue will persist. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the type of hernia. Symptoms may or may not be present in some inguinal hernias. In the case of reducible hernias, a bulge in the groin or in another abdominal area can often be seen and felt. When standing, such a bulge becomes more obvious. Besides the bulge, other symptoms include pain in the groin that may also include a heavy or dragging sensation, and in men, there is sometimes pain and swelling in the scrotum around thetesticular area. Irreducible abdominal hernias or incarcerated hernias may be painful, but their most relevant symptom is that they cannot return to the abdominal cavity when pushed in. They may be chronic, although painless, and can lead to strangulation (loss of blood supply) and/or obstruction (kinking of intestine). Strangulated hernias are always painful and pain is followed by tenderness. Nausea, vomiting, or fever may occur in these cases due to bowel obstruction. Also, the hernia bulge in this case may turn red, purple or dark and pink.
conditions that increase the pressure of the abdominal cavity may also cause hernias or worsen the existing ones. Some examples would be: obesity, straining during a bowel movement or urination (constipation , enlarged prostate ), chronic lung disease, and also, fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Also, if muscles are weakened due to poor nutrition, smoking, and overexertion, hernias are more likely to occur.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF HERNIA
By far the most common hernias (up to 75% of all abdominal hernias) are the so-called inguinal hernias. Inguinal hernias are further divided into the more commonindirect inguinal hernia (2/3, depicted here), in which the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type (1/3), where the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia in both men and women. In some selected cases, they may require surgery.
emoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligament, when abdominal contents pass into the weak area at the posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish from the inguinal type (especially when ascending cephalad): however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.ost common type of hernia in both men and women. In some selected cases, they may require surgery.
They involve protrusion of intraabdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall. Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute.
An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound. When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea alba, they are termed ventral hernias. These can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes already attenuated tissue. Epigastric hernia: a hernia through the linea alba above the umbilicus.The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.ost common type of hernia in both men and women. In some selected cases, they may require surgery.
For the treatment of inguinal hernia we have the facility of both the open and minimal invasive techniques.The type of procedure is offered as per the patient stage of disease by our doctors.
In the department of minimal invasive surgery Jyoti Nursing hospital we repair the hernias with the latest of technology available. A 3D Mesh is used to repair the defect which seals it from above and below, with most minimum of tissue injuries an least of pain. The patient can go home the same day and resume all the daily activities. Prolene mesh
Performed through small 3-4 cuts. We identify the defect and patch repair it with a mesh.The mesh is placed to surroundings.
Surgery is recommended for some types of hernias to prevent complications like obstruction of the bowel or strangulation of the tissue, although umbilical hernias and hiatus hernias may be watched, or are treated with medication. Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, but surgery has complications. Time needed for recovery after treatment is reduced if hernias are operated onlaparoscopically however open surgery can be done sometimes without general anesthesia. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or “reducing”, the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue (an operation called herniorrhaphy). If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ, and remove part of it if necessary.
Muscle reinforcement techniques often involve synthetic materials (a mesh prosthesis). The mesh is placed either over the defect (anterior repair) or under the defect (posterior repair). At times staples are used to keep the mesh in place. These mesh repair methods are often called “tension free” repairs because, unlike some suture methods (e.g. Shouldice), muscle is not pulled together under tension. However, this widely used terminology is misleading, as there also exists many tension-free suture methods that do not use mesh.
HOW IS LAPAROSCOPIC HERNIA REPAIR PERFORMED?
Laparoscopic Hernia Repair Performed through small 3-4 incision mesh is placed and fixed.